# Calculation method used in India

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Large numbers are written using the Indian numbering system in countries across the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan. The most common ways to express large numbers in Indian English are the terms lakh or 1,00,000 (one hundred thousand, written as 100,000 outside India) and crore or 1,00,00,000[1] (ten million, written as 10,000,000 outside India).

## Indian politics [ edit ]

One (100), ten (101), one hundred (102), one thousand (103), and ten thousand (104) all have Western counterparts in the Indian numbering system. Names no longer match up with numbers when the power of ten increases. One lakh, ten lakh, one crore, ten crore, one arab (or one hundred crore), and so on are all terms used in the Indian system; for every second power of ten (105 2n), a new term is introduced: lakh (105), crore (107), arab (109), kharab (1011), etc. In the Western system, the next powers of ten are called one hundred thousand, one million, ten million, one hundred million, one billion (short scale)/one thousand million (long scale), and so on; in the short scale, there are new words for every third power of ten (103n): million (106), billion (109), trillion (1012) etc

Different systems of writing use commas in different ways, with the Indian system (after the first thousand) grouping numbers in powers of one hundred (102), and the Western system grouping numbers in powers of one thousand (103). While the Indian and most English systems use a comma as the digit-separator and a decimal point, other languages and countries that use the Western numbering system use a thin space or point to group digits. [2]

Though less common, there are also words for billions and trillions of digits. One arab is equal to one hundred crore, or one billion on the short scale; one kharab is equal to one hundred arab, or one hundred billion; one nil is equal to one ten trillion; and one padma is equal to one quadrillion. 1 shankha (equal to 100 padmas, or 100 quadrillion) and 1 mahashankh (equal to 100 shankha, or 10 quintillion) For example, 1,000,000,000,000 (one trillion) is commonly referred to as 1 lakh crore (10,00,00,00,00), and the written form of this number is 10,00,00,00,00,000.

### Examples [ edit ]

• rupee: 150,000 Indian Rupees, also written as "1.5 lakh rupees"; lakh: 150,000 Indian Rupees, also written as "1,50,000 rupees"
• "3 crore rupees" is shorthand for "thirty million rupees," which is written as 3,00,00,000 rupees with commas after the numbers "thousand," "lakh," and "crore."

### English pronunciation [ edit ]

Speakers of native Indian languages may use English pronunciations that are more similar to their native tongue when speaking English. g It is possible to pronounce "lakh" and "crore" as "lkh" and "krr," respectively.

• Hazart, /hz()/
• Lakh /lk/
• hundred million
• arab /æˈɹ̠æb/
• Arabic: (kharab)

## Separators are used [ edit ]

Different from the worldwide standard, India's numbering system makes use of different separators. The Indian numbering system differs from the international system in that it groups digits by sets of two rather than threes until the hundreds place. Therefore, 10 kharab (or 1 lakh crore) would be used to represent 1 trillion. In the lingo of the system, this makes the number easy to read. For instance:

The Indian Method Indian method (in a nutshell) Global structure Globalized (in-text) 5,00,000 Five lakh
500,000 Amounting to \$500,000 12,34,56,789 One trillion, three hundred and eighty-nine million, twelve lakhs, fifty-six hundred and nine 123,456,789 The total is 123,456,788. 17,00,00,00,000 There were 17 Arabs 17,000,000,000 1.7 x 1017 (small scale) 6,78,90,00,00,00,00,000 The numerical value is 678090KHARB. 6,789,000,000,000,000 Six sextillion, seven hundred and eighty-nine billion

Thousands, hundreds of thousands, tens of millions, etc., all have their own distinct symbols in the Indian numeral system, so this is in keeping with it.

## Number names [ edit ]

The numbers in the following table are based on the common abbreviation of "billion" as "million." Since the British had previously adopted the long scale, one billion was considered to be one million million in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

Number names South Asian Dialect Hindustani Marathi Bengali Odia Tamil Telugu Kannada Malayalam Nepali Hindi notation Power
notation Using a global notation system[4] Scaled-down Western
(extended Western) One एक / ایک
( ēk ) एक
( ēk ) এক
( êk ) ଏକ
( ekå ) ஒன்று
( oṉṟu ) ఒకటి
( okaṭi ) ಒಂದು
( ondu ) ഒന്ന്
( onn ) एक
( ēk ) 1 100 1 One Ten दस / دس
( das ) दहा
( dahā ) দশ
( dôś ) ଦଶ
( dåśå ) பத்து
( pattu ) పది
( hattu ) പത്ത്
( patt ) दश
( daś ) 10 101 10 Ten
Decimal prefix: It's a hundred सौ / سو
( sau ) शंभर
( śambhar ) একশ
( êkśō ) ଶହେ
( śåhe ) நூறு
( nūṟu ) వంద/నూరు
( vanda/nūru ) ನೂರು
( nūru ) നൂറ്
( nuṟ ) सय
( saya ) 100 102 100 It's a hundred
Hecto- is the prefix used with SI units. The twelfth हज़ार / ہزار
( hazār ) एक हजार
( ēk hajār ) হাজার
( hāzār ) ହଜାର
( håjārå )
ସହସ୍ର
( såhåsrå ) ஆயிரம்
( āyiram ) వెయ్యి
( veyyi ) ಸಾವಿರ
( sāvira ) ആയിരം
( āyiraṁ ) एक हजार
( ēk hajār ) 1,000 103 1,000 It's a thousand
Kilo is the prefix for SI units of measure. Thousands, ten दस हज़ार / دس ہزار
( das hazār ) दहा हजार
( "Allah Hajr" ) দশ হাজার
( dôś hāzār )
অযুত
( ōjut ) ଦଶ ହଜାର
( dåśå håjārå )
ଅୟୁତ
( åyutå ) பத்தாயிரம்
( pattāyiram )
ஆயுதம்
( āyutam ) పది వేలు
( padi vēlu ) ಹತ್ತು ಸಾವಿರ
( ) പതിനായിരം
( patināyiraṁ ) दश हजार
( dar es-hajr ) 10,000 104 10,000 A number equal to 10,000 One lakh लाख / لاکھ
( lākh ) एक लाख
( ēk lākh ) লক্ষ
( lôkkhō )
লাখ
( lākh ) ଲକ୍ଷ
( låkṣå ) இலட்சம்
( ilaṭcam )
நியுதம்
( niyutam ) లక్ష
( lakṣa ) ಲಕ್ಷ
( lakṣa ) ലക്ഷം
( lakṣaṁ ) एक लाख
( ēk lākh ) 1,00,000 105 100,000 A number equal to 100,000 Ten lakh दस लाख / دس لاکھ
( das lākh ) दहा लाख
( doh lihk ) দশ লাখ
( dôś lākh )
নিযুত
( nijut ) ଦଶ ଲକ୍ଷ
( dåśå låkṣå )
ନିୟୁତ
( niyutå ) பத்து இலட்சம்
( Ilacam pattu ) పది లక్షలు
( pads down, alu ) ಹತ್ತು ಲಕ್ಷ
( hattu laka ) പത്തുലക്ഷം
( pattulakṣaṁ ) दश लाख
( daś lākh ) 10,00,000 106 1,000,000 Over a million
Metric prefix: mega- One crore करोड़ / کروڑ
( karōṛ ) एक कोटी
( ēk kōṭī ) কোটি
( kōṭi ) କୋଟି
( koṭi ) கோடி
( kōṭi ) కోటి
( kōṭi ) ಕೋಟಿ
( kōṭi ) കോടി
( kōṭi ) एक करोड
( ēk karoḍ ) 1,00,00,000 107 10,000,000 Over 10,000,000 Ten crore दस करोड़ / دس کروڑ
( ) दहा कोटी
( dahā kōṭī ) দশ কোটি
( dôś kōṭi )
অর্বুদ
( ōrbud ) ଦଶ କୋଟି
( dåśå koṭi )
ଅର୍ବୁଦ
( årbudå ) அற்புதம்
( aṟputam ) పది కోట్లు
( mata kulu ) ಹತ್ತು ಕೋಟಿ
( ana hattu ki ) പത്തുകോടി
( pattukōṭi ) दश करोड
( do the karo ) 10,00,00,000 108 100,000,000 The number one hundred million One Arab = One Billion अरब / ارب
( arab )
सौ करोड़ / سو کروڑ
( (sa kr) ) एक अब्ज
( ēk abja ) একশ কোটি
( êkśō kōṭi )
মহার্বুদ
( môhārbud ) ଶହେ କୋଟି
( śåhe koṭi )
ବୃନ୍ଦ
( brundå ) நிகற்புதம்
( nikaṟputam ) వంద కోట్లు
( klu vanda ) ನೂರು ಕೋಟಿ
( nūru kōṭi ) നൂറുകോടി
( nūṟukōṭi ) एक अर्ब
( ēk arba ) 1,00,00,00,000 109 1,000,000,000 In the billions
"(one million)"
Grams and inches: mega- and tera- Ten Arab Dirhams = One Billion Crore दस अरब / دس ارب
( das arab )
एक हज़ार करोड़ / ایک ہزار کروڑ
( All Hail the King ) एक खर्व
( ek kharva ) হাজার কোটি
( hāzār kōṭi )
খর্ব
( khôrbō ) ହଜାର କୋଟି
( hijra koi )
ଖର୍ବ
( khårbå ) கும்பம்
( kumpam ) వెయ్యి కోట్లు
( words ending in "klu" ) ಒಂದು ಸಾವಿರ ಕೋಟಿ
( ) ആയിരം കോടി
( yira k'i ) दश अर्ब
( daś arba ) 10,00,00,00,000 1010 10,000,000,000 Zero point ten billion
(one zero zero) Ten thousand crore, one kharab, or one hundred arabic dollars खरब / کھرب
( kharab ) एक निखर्व
( one nikharva ) দশ হাজার কোটি
( dô hjr ki )
মহাখর্ব
( môhākhôrbō ) ଦଶ ହଜାର କୋଟି
( d'hojra ko'i )
ନିଖର୍ବ
( nikhårbå ) கணம்
( kaṇam ) పది వేల కోట్లు
( padi vala kula ) ಹತ್ತು ಸಾವಿರ ಕೋಟಿ
( (hattu svira ki) ) പതിനായിരം കോടി
( It's a patinyira ki ) एक खर्ब
( ēk kharba ) 1,00,00,00,00,000 1011 100,000,000,000 Ten zeros of billions
(hundred billion) One thousand Arab dinars (ten kharab) a thousand billion दस खरब / دس کھرب
( das kharab )
एक लाख करोड़ / ایک لاکھ کروڑ
( "k lkh kar" ) एक पद्म
( ēk padma ) লাখ কোটি
( lākh kōṭi )
শঙ্খ
( śôṅkhō ) ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( låkṣå koṭi )
ଶଙ୍ଖ
( śåṅkhå ) கற்பம்
( kaṟpam ) లక్ష కోట్లు
( / / laka klu ) ಒಂದು ಲಕ್ಷ ಕೋಟಿ
( ondu laki ki ) ഒരു ലക്ഷം കോടി
( oru laka ki ) दश खर्ब
( to the kharba ) 10,00,00,00,00,000 1012 1,000,000,000,000 Billion and one
(a whole lot)
Prefixing a number with the SI prefix tera- A zero, a hundred kharab, a ten thousand arab, or a ten thousand arabic zillion नील / نیل
( nīl ) एक महापद्म
(one great lotus) দশ লাখ কোটি
( "dô lkh ki" )
পদ্ম
( pôddō )
মহাশঙ্খ
( môhāśôṅkhō ) ଦଶ ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( d' l' k' o'i )
ପଦ୍ମ
( pådmå ) நிகற்பம்
( nikaṟpam ) పది లక్షల కోట్లు
( padi lakala klu ) ಹತ್ತು ಲಕ್ಷ ಕೋಟಿ
( "hattu laka ki" ) പത്തുലക്ഷം കോടി
( pattulakkii ki ) नील
( nīl ) 1,00,00,00,00,00,000 1013 10,000,000,000,000 It's astronomical: ten trillion
(10 000 000) Zero ten/one trillion, one billion दस नील / دس نیل
( das nīl )
एक करोड़ करोड़ / ایک کروڑ کروڑ
( To be continued... ) एक शंखू
( ēk śaṅkhū ) একশ লাখ কোটি
( êk lkh kii )
শতকোটি লক্ষ
( ôtoki lôkki )
মহাপদ্ম
( môhāpôddō ) ଶହେ ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( He looks like koi )
ସାଗର
( sāgårå ) பதுமம்
( patumam ) కోటి కోట్లు
( kōṭi kōṭlu ) ಒಂದು ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ
( tong ki ki ) നൂറ് ലക്ഷം കോടി
( no lagak ki ) दश नील
( daś nīl ) 10,00,00,00,00,00,000 1014 100,000,000,000,000 A hundred thousand million
(one zero zero zero) Ten thousand million, one hundred million, one padma पद्म / پدم
( padma ) एक जलधि शंखू
Either/or (eka jaladhi akh) হাজার লাখ কোটি
( hazr lkh ki ) ହଜାର ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( hi jinks, koi )
ଅନ୍ତ୍ୟ
( åntyå ) சங்கம்
( caṅkam ) పది కోట్ల కోట్లు
( pads down, laces up ) ಹತ್ತು ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ
( the hattu ki ki ) ആയിരം ലക്ഷം കോടി
( (yira laka ki) ) पद्म
( padma ) 100,00,00,00,00,00,000 1015 1,000,000,000,000,000 An enormous number equaling one quadrillion.
(one million)
Metric prefix "peta-" Approximately 10,000,000,000,000.00 Padmas दस पद्म / دس پدم
( das padma ) एक अंत्य
To put it simply (eka antya) দশ হাজার লাখ কোটি
( dô hazr lkh ki ) ଦଶ ହଜାର ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( to have a heartbeat like a koi )
ମଧ୍ୟ
( mådhyå ) வெள்ளம்
( veḷḷam )
சமுத்திரம்
( camuttiram ) వంద కోట్ల కోట్లు
( vandalized Kaluakoolua ) ನೂರು ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ
( (nru ki ki) ) പതിനായിരം ലക്ഷം കോടി
( patin yi ra ka ki ) दश पद्म
(one zero zero) One Shankh, 100 Padmas, 1,000 Billion, 1,000,000,000,000.00 शंख / شنکھ
( śaṅkh ) एक परार्ध
(single ardha) শত হাজার লাখ কোটি
( "oto hzr lkh ki" ) ଶହେ ହଜାର ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( He looks like a jogger )
ପରାର୍ଦ୍ଧ
( pårārddhå ) அந்நியம்
( anniyam ) వెయ్యి కోట్ల కోట్లు
( kla klu veyyi ) ಒಂದು ಸಾವಿರ ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ
( ) ലക്ഷം ലക്ഷം കോടി
( (laka laka ki) ) शंख
( śaṅkha ) 100,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 1017 100,000,000,000,000,000 Numbering in at 100 quadrillion
(hundred-thousand million) Ten shankhs, or ten quadrillions of a billion, दस शंख / دس شنکھ
( die Akh )
गुलशन / گلشن
( gulśan ) एक महापरार्ध
(one great protector) দশ শত হাজার লাখ কোটি
( "do oto hzr lkh ki" )
গুলশান
( gulśān ) ଦଶ ଶହେ ହଜାର ଲକ୍ଷ କୋଟି
( doe he hjar likke koe )
ଦଶ ପରାର୍ଦ୍ଧ
( D. P. R. D. H. ) அர்த்தம்
( arttam ) పది వేల కోట్ల కోట్లు
( padi vla klu klu ) ಹತ್ತು ಸಾವಿರ ಕೋಟಿ ಕೋಟಿ
( The phrase "hattu svira ki ki" ) പത്തുലക്ഷം ലക്ഷം കോടി
( pattulakṣaṁ lakṣaṁ kōṭi ) दश शंख
( "da akha" ) 10,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,000 1018 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 Exactly one quintillion
(a billion million)
Exa- is the prefix used with the SI units.

## Chronological ordering of numbers [ edit ]

### Using numerals in the Hindu epics [ edit ]

The ancient Indian epic literature (itihasas) contains a wide variety of numerical systems. The table below details one such system from the Valmiki Ramayana. [5]

Name Using Indian notation Notation for Power The Indian Method Condensed Western एक ( ēka ) 0,00,00 1 100 One One दश ( daśa ) 0,00,0 10 101 Ten Ten शत ( śata ) 0,00, 100 102 A hundred It's a hundred सहस्र ( sahasra ) 0,0 1,000 103 It's a thousand It's a thousand लक्ष ( lakṣa ) 1,00,000 105 One lakh Hundred and ten thousand कोटि ( kōṭi )
1,00,000 śata 107 One crore Over 10,000,000 शङ्कु ( śaṅku ) 1,00,000 koṭi 1012 One thousand billion kharabs Over a thousand times that number महाशङ्कु ( mahāśaṅku ) 1,00,000 śaṅku 1017 To the nearest shankh or one thousand billion billion Ten zeros in front of a billion वृन्द ( vr̥nda ) 1,00,000 mahāśaṅku 1022 Ten trillion, or ten sextillion. महावृन्द ( mahāvr̥nda ) 1,00,000 vr̥nda 1027 There are one octillion of them. पद्म ( padma ) 1,00,000 mahāvr̥nda 1032 In the 100 nonillion range महापद्म ( mahāpadma ) 1,00,000 padma 1037 Ten zeros worth खर्व ( kharva ) 1,00,000 mahāpadma 1042 There are 1,024 years in a tredecillion. महाखर्व ( mahākharva ) 1,00,000 kharva 1047 One hundred and fourty-seven million समुद्र ( samudra ) 1,00,000 mahākharva 1052 Number 10 sexillions and some zeros ओघ ( ogha ) 1,00,000 samudra 1057 An octodecillion महौघ ( mahaugha ) 1,00,000 ogha 1062 A hundred and noventaseptillion

### Alternative numerical systems [ edit ]

Land in the Kumaon Kingdom was measured using a system that was approximative and subject to local variations because it was based on arable lands. The most popular of these was based on a vigesimal (base-20) system, with its primary unit of measure being the bisi (see Hindustani number bs), which was equal to the area needed to plant 20 nalis of seed. As a result, its true land area varied depending on the quality of the soil. By 1891, Kumaon had adopted this system as the norm. [7]

## Translation into other languages [ edit ]

• The Assamese word for a thousand is লক্ষ lokhyo, or লাখ A number between one hundred thousand (or "lakh") and one billion (or "crore কৌটি বা কোটি kouti
• The native (tadbhava) term for one hundred thousand in Bengali is লাখ lkh, though the ardha-tatsama is preferred by some. লক্ষ lokkho The term for a thousand million is "crore." কোটি kōṭi
• The Burmese word for "crore" ကုဋေ [ɡədè] The Burmese word for "thousand" is "lakh"
• A thousand is written as la'kha and a million as kroaru in Dhivehi.
• The Gujarati word for a thousand is લાખ lkh plus a CRO Represents કરોડ karoḍ The name for a hundred million is અબજ abaj
• One hundred thousand is called लाख lkh plus a crore is referred to as करोड karoḍ The term for one hundred million is अरब arab
• One hundred thousand is called ಲಕ್ಷ laka and a crore are referred to as ಕೋಟಿ kōṭi
• Khasi speakers refer to ten thousand as lak and one hundred thousand as klur or krur. The numbers "arab" and "kharab" both refer to one billion.
• A thousand in Malayalam is known as ലക്ഷം laksham plus one crore is referred to as കോടി kodi
• One hundred thousand is called लाख/लक्ष lkh plus a crore is referred to as कोटी koṭi or करोड karo, and an Arab is referred to as अब्ज abja
• What is a lakh called in Nepali? लाख lkh plus a CRO Represents करोड karoḍ
• What is a lakh called in Odia? ଲକ୍ଷ lôkhyô and a million are written as କୋଟି koṭi
• The Punjabi word for a thousand is lakkh (Shahmukhi: لکھ and Gurmukhi: ਲੱਖ Karo (Shahmukhi: ; English: کروڑ , Gurmukhi : ਕਰੋੜ )
• A thousand is written as lák and a million as kurul in Rohingya. Kuth is the name for a thousand crore.
• The Sinhalese word for a thousand is ලක්ෂ lakṣa what we refer to a billion as කෝටි kōṭi
• One hundred thousand is called இலட்சம் It's ilacam and a crore. கோடி kōṭi
• The Telugu word for one million is లక్ష it's referred to as a lakha and a crore కోటి kōṭi
• The Urdu word for a thousand is لاکھ lkh plus a crore is referred to as کروڑ karoṛ Arab is the word for a billion. ارب ), and a kharab is equal to one hundred billion arabs کھرب )
• The Swahili word lakh now means " laki In addition to being widely employed,

In India's official English-language publications, the terms lakh and crore are used for Indian currency, while the International Numbering System is used for all other currencies. [8]

## Present day usage [ edit ]

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar are the only countries where this system is in use at this time. It's the de facto standard for counting in those nations, and it's widely favored over the English system. [9]

Although Sri Lanka formerly used this system, they have recently adopted the English numbering system.

The term lakh is commonly used in Maldivian everyday life and official documents. However, larger numbers (tens of thousands or millions) are typically written in English.

The Reserve Bank of India is one of the few exceptions to the rule that most Indian institutions and citizens use the Indian number system. [10]

## References [ edit ]

• 10th Grade Science: Life Processes with Complimentary Ncert Solutions 2023-07-25 00:51:45

Solution: The inner lining of the small intestine undergoes a structural modification, forming villi, which are finger-like projections. These villi serve to increase the surface area for the absorption of digested food. Furthermore, they have a high vascularity, meaning they are well-supplied

• Creating a Lovely and Simple Homemade Rakhi 2023-07-25 00:50:08

Creating Your Own Homemade RakhiThe glimmer in your eyes and the fervent desires in your heart paint a clear picture: you're filled with ideas for surprising your loved ones on Raksha Bandhan! Are you aware of what that entails? It means that Raksha Bandhan is fast approaching, leaving us with limited