Cycle of Yuga

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A Yuga Epoch (a.k.a. k a Each of the cyclic ages (yuga, chatur yuga, maha yuga, etc.) in Hindu cosmology Each yuga (world age)—Krita (Satya) Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga, and Kali Yuga—repeats every 4,320,000 years (12,000 divine years[a]). [4]

The length of each yuga and the general moral and physical state of humanity within each yuga decrease by a factor of one-fourth as a Yuga Cycle moves through the four yugas. It is believed that the beginning of the Kali Yuga, which lasts for 432,000 years, occurred in 3102 BCE. [5][6] Near the end of Kali Yuga, when virtues are at their worst, a cataclysm and a re-establishment of dharma occur to usher in the next cycle's Satya Yuga, prophesied to occur by Kalki

A manvantara (age of Manu) contains 71 Yuga Cycles, while a kalpa (day of Brahma) contains 1,000. [6]

Lexicology [ edit ]

There are a number of different terms for a Yuga Cycle.

Age, or Yuga (Sanskrit: युग literal translation: "the age of the gods"

Age and Yuga are frequently used to reverently denote a " catur-yuga Unless otherwise specified, the four-world-age cycle includes the following minor ages: It is also written as yugam or the even more antiquated yug. yugānāṃ and yuge, from the Sanskrit word yuj (). युज् , which is thought to have originated from *yeug- "light" in Proto-Indo-European "to come together" [11]

The Sanskrit term for this era is Chatur Yuga. चतुर्युग written in Latin: You can spell it caturyuga, catur-yuga, chatur-yuga, or chatur-yuga. , lit. ' catur means four; the four ages taken together):[12]

Hindu texts such as the Surya Siddhanta, the Manusmriti, and the Bhagavata Purana define the four yuga ages as part of a cyclical age. [15]

The Age of Daiva (Sanskrit: दैवयुग Transliterated from the Roman: daiva yuga or daiva yuga , literally "the age of the gods" or "the age of the gods,"[16]
When the Deva Yuga (Sanskrit: देवयुग Transliterated from the Roman: deva-yuga or deva-yuga , literally "the Age of Gods"),[17]
In Sanskrit, the term for the current epoch is Divya Yuga. दिव्य युग written in Latin: or the Divya-Yuga Era , literally "a heavenly or divine age"]:[18]

The four yugas (a.k.a. "epochs") that make up a cyclical age of the gods (Devas). k a "world ages" or "human ages" According to Hindu scripture, one divine year equals 360 solar (human) years. [5][6]

The Great Age (Sanskrit: महायुग translated from the Roman script: or the Mah-yuga Era literal translation: "great age"

A larger cyclic age that includes the four yuga epochs [6]

Period of Yuga (Sanskrit: युग , literally "age" in English) cycle ):

A period of time that repeats itself every four yuga.

Since the concept of the four yugas does not appear in the four Vedas, it is believed to have been developed later, before the rest of the Hindu texts were written. The four yugas are thought to have been named after the numbers rolled on a long dice game played in India: Krita (Satya), Treta, Dvapara, and Kali. Dice games are mentioned in the Rigveda, the Atharvaveda, the Upanishads, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas, but the four yugas that follow the four Vedas make no reference to dice. The Vishnu Smriti (chapters 13–22) provides a comprehensive overview of the four yugas and the changes that occurred between them. Twenty, the Mahabharata (e.g., g Manusmriti (I. 81–86), as well as the Puranas (e g Brahma, ch 121-123; Matsya, ch. 143; Naradiya, Purvardha, chapters 142-143 41) In addition to the Vedas, the Bhagavata Purana (3 11 18–20)

Intensity and framework [ edit ]

The Yuga cycle's framework

According to Hindu scriptures, there are four yugas (world ages) in a cycle called the Yuga Cycle. These yugas are named Krita (Satya) Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga, and Kali Yuga. In each yuga, there is a primary era (a k a yuga proper), and its predecessor (the yuga-sandhyā (the time of day) and then its yuga-sandhyāṃśa (dusk), with each twilight constituting ten percent (10%) of the total time period There are 360 solar (human) years in a divine year (year of the gods). [4][5][6]

There are four yugas in each Yuga Cycle, and they occur in the following order:[4][5][6]. Each Yuga Cycle is 4,320,000 years long (12,000 divine years).

  • 1,728,000 (4,800) years of Krita (Satya) Yuga
    • 144,000 at Krita-yuga-sandhya's dawn (400 deities).
    • 1,440,000 (4,000 divine) in the Krita-yuga (correct).
    • (At) twilight in the Krita yuga (144,000; 400 divine)
  • 1,296,000,000 (3,600,000,000) years in the Treta Yuga.
    • 108,000 at the dawn of the Treta yuga (300 deities).
    • Correct Treta-yuga: 1,080,000 (3,000 divine).
    • 108,000 at Treta-yuga-sandhyamsa (dusk), including 300 deities.
  • 864,000 (2,400) divine years constitute the Dvapara Yuga.
    • Dvapara yuga sandhya (morning): 72 thousand (two hundred divine).
    • 720,000 (2,000 divine) in the Dvapara-yuga epoch
    • 72 thousand (two hundred divine) at dvapara-yuga-sandhyamsa (dusk).
  • Kali Yuga: 1,200 divine, or 432,000 human years
    • 36,000 at Kali yuga dawn (sandhya) (100 divine)
    • (Correct) Kali-yuga population: 360 thousand (one thousand divine).
    • 36 thousand (one hundred godlike) at Kali-yuga-sandhyamsa (dusk).

Dates for the other three yugas in this cycle are based on the current age, Kali Yuga, which began in 3102 BCE. [6][13]

Chapter 12 of Mahabharata: Shanti Parva 231:[27][d]

Seventeen (17) A human year is equivalent to a day and night in the gods' time   (19) For the Krita, Treta, Dwapara, and Kali yugas, I will tell you the number of years that are calculated differently for different purposes. (20) The first age, also known as the Krita age, lasted for four thousand aeons in the heavens. Four hundred years make up both the morning and the evening of that cycle. (21) Each succeeding cycle is progressively a quarter shorter than the one before it, when comparing the length of the main period to that of the minor portion and to that of the conjoining portion. (29) According to the enlightened, this period of 12,000 celestial years constitutes a cycle.  

Ch. Manusmriti, 1:[28]

For the gods, one year is like a day and a night.   (68) But listen now for a condensed (description of) the length of a night and a day in the realm of Brahman [(Brahma)] and of the various ages (of the world, yuga) in accordance with their sequence. (69) They claim that the Krita age spans four thousand years in the gods' history, with an equal number of hundreds separating the two twilight periods before and after it. Seventy) The thousands and hundreds are reduced by one (in each) in the other three ages with their preceding and subsequent twilights. Seventy-one) The total of twelve thousand years mentioned thus far, which is the equivalent of four (human) ages, is referred to as one (divine) age.

Ch. Surya Siddhanta 1:[29]

(13) A year consists of twelve months. A divine day, as it were. (14) Six hundred and sixty of them make a divine year.   Quadruple Age (caturyuga) (15) is the name given to a period of twelve thousand of these divine years; of ten thousand times four hundred and thirty-two [4,320,000] solar years (16) is composed that Quadruple Age, with its dawn and twilight. By comparison, the Golden Age has ten times as many feet of Virtue as any of the other ages, as calculated by multiplying the tenth part of an age by four, three, two, and one. provides a chronological breakdown of how long the Golden Age and other epochs lasted: the sixth portion of each era was spent in the pre-historic era.

Bigger oscillations [ edit ]

A manvantara, or period ruled by Manu, the progenitor of humanity, consists of 71 Yuga cycles (306,720,000 years). A kalpa, or period equal to a day (12-hour day proper) in the time of Brahma, the creator of the universe and all life, consists of 1,000 Yuga cycles (4,320,000,000 years). Each Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years, or 14 manvantaras, so a kalpa contains 14 manvantaras (4,294,080,000 years) and 15 manvantara-sandhyas (junctions), for a total of 25,920,000 years. A full day (24-hour day) consists of a kalpa and an equal-length pralaya (night or partial dissolution). A Yuga cycle (or "life of Brahma") consists of 72,000,000 years, or 311 years, or 100 Brahma years (of 360 days each). A brief period of creation (0.04 trillion years) is followed by an equally brief period of dissolution (maha-pralaya). [6]

Today marks the halfway point in the life of Brahma (maha-kalpa):[6][32]

  • Year 51 of a century is known as the parardha.
  • The 1st of 12 Months
  • the 1st kalpa out of 30 (the Shveta-Varaha Kalpa).
  • 14th epoch (7th manvantara, Vaivasvata Manu)
  • The 28th yuga (chatur) k a The 71-year Yuga Cycle
  • Fourth yuga (Kali Yuga) of the four

An ashloka, recited at the start of Hindu rituals, uses Yuga dates to describe how much of Brahma's life has already passed:

Kali Yuga year 5121 (the year 2020)   The first day of the 51st year of Brahma (circa 1 CE) in the 28th Caturyuga of the 7th Manvantra

Avatars [ edit ]

We need more information here. To contribute, please expand upon ( Date: 2020-11 )

Ganesha [ edit ]

Different yugas are associated with different Ganesha avatars. [35][36][37]

Vishnu [ edit ]

It is possible that not all Yuga Cycles will feature the appearance of the Vishnu avatars described in the Puranas.

Vamana first appears at the start of the Treta Yuga. Vamana made his third appearance in the seventh Treta Yuga, according to Vayu Purana. [38][39]

Rama shows up at the close of the Treta Yuga. [40] Rama made his debut in the 24th Yuga Cycle, as stated in Vayu Purana and Matsya Purana. Padma Purana claims that Rama made an appearance in the 27th Yuga Cycle of the 6th (previous) manvantara. [42]

Vyasa [ edit ]

The four Vedas, the Mahabharata, and the Puranas are all traditionally credited to Vyasa. At the close of each Dvapara Yuga, a new Vyasa appears, as described in the Vishnu Purana, the Kurma Purana, and the Shiva Purana, to record veda (knowledge) that will serve as a guide for humanity during the dark Kali Yuga. [44][45]

Current Hypotheses [ edit ]

New theories about the length, number, and order of the yugas have emerged, challenging the traditional view that each yuga lasts for thousands of years.

The Giri of Sri Yukteswar [ edit ]

In the preface to his book The Holy Science (1894), Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri (1855-1936) proposed a Yuga Cycle of 24,000 years. [46]

As he saw it, the mistaken belief that Kali Yuga lasts for 432,000 years began with Raja Parikshit shortly after the descending Dvapara Yuga ended (c. 3101   BCE), he had all of his court's wise men flee to the Himalayas. Due to the lack of reliable chronologists, Kali Yuga did not begin. After 499   A.D., as the Dvapara Yuga ascended, people's minds began to mature enough to spot errors and make an attempt to fix them by converting what they believed to be divine years to human years (1:360 ratio). According to Yukteswar, the lengths of the Satya, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali yugas are 4,800, 3,600, 2,400, and 1,200 "human" years, or a total of 12,000.

Although he acknowledged the four yugas and their 4:3:2:1 length and dharma proportions, he added two more yugas to his Yuga Cycle, calling the first descending set of yugas a "Daiva Yuga" or "Electric Couple" and the second ascending set a "Maha Yuga" or "Great Yuga." One precession of the equinoxes (traditionally 25,920 years; 1,920 years ignored) is equal to his Yuga Cycle's duration of 24,000 years. According to him, the Pisces-Virgo Age began in 499.   The current age of Dvapara Yuga, which is ascending from the "cycle bottom" of 1699 CE,   Approximately the time period of the advent of modern scientific developments like electricity

The Sun, he said, moves closer and further away from the center of the galaxy as it orbits a binary star once every 24,000 years, or the duration of one Yuga Cycle. The place where Brahma controls dharma, or mental virtue as defined by Yukteswar, he dubbed Vishnunabhi (Vishnu's Navel) in the center of the galaxy. At the descending-ascending intersection ("cycle-bottom"), Dharma is at its lowest, and vice versa at the "cycle-top," when it is closest to Brahma. The lowest point of dharma (499   CE), the human mind is limited in its ability to grasp concepts beyond the purely material.

The Yuga Cycle of Sri Yukteswar Yuga Launch (-Closure) Length Falling backwards (12,000 years): (Satya) Krita 11,501   BCE 4,800 Treta 6701   BCE 3,600 Dvapara 3101   BCE 2,400 Kali 701   BCE 1,200 Moving upwards (12,000 years): Kali 499   CE 1,200 Dvapara* 1699   CE 2,400 Treta 4099   CE 3,600 (Satya) Krita 7699   CE - 12,499   CE 4,800 Years: 24,000 The Present [e]

According to Joscelyn Godwin, Yukteswar thought the traditional chronology of the yugas was wrong and rigged for political reasons. However, a police report published in Atlantis and the Cycles of Time suggests that Yukteswar may have had his own political motivations. meaning "new age" or "transition of an epoch," it connects Yukteswar to a covert anti-colonial movement of the same name.

Godwin asserts that Yukteswar, whose theory has only recently become prominent outside of India, was influenced by the Jain time cycle and the European myth of progress. An optimistic view of humanity runs counter to common belief. Many philosophies and religions, Godwin argues, got their start when "man could not see beyond the gross material world" (701).   BCE – 1699   CE) The post-1700 era is only viewed as a step forward by materialists and atheists.

The 499-year-old ascending Kali Yuga was revised by John Major Jenkins.   Criticizes Yukteswar for wanting the "cycle-bottom" to match his own education, beliefs, and historical understanding by shifting the date range from 1 CE to 2012 in his own version. Because of technology, we are now more materialistic and less spiritual than ever before.

Guénon, René [ edit ]

In a 1931 French article that was translated into English as part of the book Traditional Forms & Cosmic Cycles (2001), René Guénon (1886-1951) proposed a Yuga Cycle of 64,800 years. [55]

Kali Yuga as the current age and the doctrine of the four yugas with lengths of 4, 3, 2, and 1 years were all accepted by Guénon. He refused to believe the astronomically large numbers and suspected that they were encoded with extra zeros to trick those who might use it for foresight. Although he shortened the length of a Yuga Cycle from 4,320,000 to 4,320 years (1,728 1,296 864 432), he believed that this was still insufficient for the development of human society.

He used the precession of the equinoxes (typically 25,920 years; 360 degrees, or 72 years) as a starting point in his search for a multiplier. His calculation for the sub-multiplier was based on the numbers 25,920 and 72, yielding a result of 4,320 years (72 x 60 = 4,320; 4,320 x 6 = 25,920). Having observed that the Persian "great year" (12,000 years) and the Greek "great year" (13,000 years) were each almost half the precession, he deduced that a "great year" must be 12,960 years (4,320 x 3). Vaivasvata Manu was looking for the full number of "great years" in a manvantara or reign, and he thought he had found it in the reign of Xisuthros of the Chaldeans, which was set at 64,800 years (12,960 x 5). Guénon thought that 64,800 years was a more reasonable estimate that might fit with the timeline of human civilization. According to his calculations, the division of a 64,800 manvantara by a 4,320 "encoded" Yuga Cycle yields a multiplier of 15 (5 "great years"). Using 15 as a multiplier, he "decoded" the lengths of the yugas in a cycle of 5 "great years"[55].

  • As for Satya, the numbers are as follows: 25,920 (4 ratio, or 2 x "great year"; 15 x 1,728)
  • Number of Treta: 19,440 (3:1) 5 times "excellent year"; 15 times 1,296
  • The Dvapara number is 12,960 (1 x "great year" or 2 ratio; 15 x 864).
  • 6,480 in Kali (1:0 ratio) 15 times 432 (5 times "great year,")

Although Guénon did not specify when the Kali Yuga would begin, he did provide some hints about its nature in his account of the catastrophic end of the Atlantean civilization. Jean Robin, one of his commentators, claimed to have decoded this description and calculated the duration of the Kali Yuga in an early 1980s publication.   BCE to 1999   CE (2000   BCE (before Common Era) Although Gaston Georgel predicted the end of the world in 1999 CE in his 1949 book Les Quatre ges de L'Humanité (The Four Ages of Humanity), he shifted his prediction in his 1983 book Le Cycle Judéo-Chrétien (The Judeo-Christian Cycle). Later, he proposed bringing the cycle's end date up to 2030 CE. [59]

Mr. Alain Daniélou [ edit ]

In his book While the Gods Play: Shaiva Oracles and Predictions on the Cycles of History and the Destiny of Mankind (1985), Alain Daniélou (1907-1994) proposed a Yuga Cycle of 60,487 years. [60]

Daniélou and René Guénon exchanged letters because they shared a mutual rejection of the Puranas' ludicrously large measurements. Daniélou's calculations are based on a 4,320,000-year Yuga Cycle with (his calculation of 1000 14) 71 Manvantaras, most of which were referenced from Linga Purana. There are 42 manvantaras, and each one consists of 4 yugas [in 4:3:2:1 ratios]. He estimated 3102   Kali Yuga began in BCE, after the sunrise (yuga-sandhya). According to him, the Yuga Cycle began with a massive flood and the emergence of Cro-Magnon man, and it will conclude with a catastrophe that wipes out all humankind. His dates are accurate to within 50 years.

According to Joscelyn Godwin, Daniélou's confusion stems from a faulty translation of Linga Purana 1.4. 7

Vedic Hindu astronomy [ edit ]

The Hindu astronomical classic Surya Siddhanta uses yuga cycles to determine the length of planetary orbits. The number of orbits a celestial body makes in a yuga cycle is specified rather than its period of one orbit around Earth.

This chapter from Surya Siddhanta, by Ch 1:

(29) In one Age (yuga), four million, three hundred and twenty thousand days pass as the sun, mercury, and venus rotate counterclockwise and the conjunctions (shighra) of Mars, Saturn, and Jupiter advance eastward; (30) In one yuga, the moon completes fifty-seven million, seven hundred and fifty-three thousand, three hundred and thirty-six revolutions; (31) In one yuga, Mars completes fifty-seven million, seven hundred and fifty-three thousand (31) For the conjunction of Mercury (shighra), there were seventeen million, nine hundred and thirty-seven thousand, and sixty people; for Jupiter (360,420), there were three hundred and sixty-four thousand, two hundred and twenty; (32) For the conjunction of Venus (shigra), there were seven million, twenty-two thousand, and sixty people. three hundred and seventy-six; Saturn, one hundred and forty-six thousand five hundred and sixty-eight; (33) of the moon's apsis (ucca), in an Age, four hundred and eighty-eight thousand, two hundred and three; of its node (pata), in the opposite direction, two hundred and thirty-two thousand 232; (34) There are 1,502,037,228 asterisms in the galaxy.

If the beginning of a yuga cycle is known, then the above calculations can be used to determine the length of time that celestial bodies orbit the sun. Burgess claims that the Surya Siddhanta identifies the precise beginning of the Kali Yuga as

At the stroke of midnight on the meridian of Ujjayini, between the 17th and 18th of February 1612 J.P., or 3102 B.C.E., the Age is deemed to have begun. This corresponds to the end of the 588,465th and beginning of the 588,466th day (civil reckoning) of the Julian Period. C

From this, Ebenezer Burgess derives the following periods for the orbits of the planets:

Different civilizations [ edit ]

Many cultures, including Robert Bolton's, hold that the world originally existed in a state of perfection, one in which nature and the supernatural were in sync and everything was at its most ideal. which was then followed by an inevitable and ongoing decline in global quality over the eons. [67]

Between lines 109 and 201 of Works and Days (c.   700   According to Godwin, the Greek poet Hesiod's description of five ages (Golden, Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and Iron Ages) is a compromise with Greek history at a time when the Trojan War and its heroes loomed so large. In contrast to the men of the Iron Age ("the race of iron"), who never rest from labor and sorrow, are degenerated without shame, morality, and righteous indignation, Bolton says that the men of the Golden Age lived like gods without sorrow, toil, grief, and old age. and die young, frequently, and at night; even infants exhibit the symptoms of old age; and finally, Zeus destroys it all.

Throughout the Statesman (c  399  – c  347   BCE the world's unmaking descent into chaos and destruction and the world's remaking by its creator into a renewed state each take up half of the cycle, with each half lasting 36,000 years, according to the Athenian philosopher Plato. Plato describes the first humans, a race of noble and good daemons (godlike guides) who walked the Earth in the Cratylus (397e).

I, 89–150; c. Metamorphoses):   8   According to Godwin, the Roman poet Ovid (ca. 63–55 b.c.e. ), excluding Hesiod's Heroic Age, describes four ages (Golden, Silver, Bronze, and Iron Ages) as a downward curve with the present time as the nadir of misery and immorality. The dead of the first two epochs became watchful immortals who aided humanity in the third era, while those of the fourth age went to Hades (the Greek god of the underworld).

Joscelyn Godwin suggests that the ancient knowledge of the Greeks and other Indo-Europeans came from Hindu tradition. Godwin also notes that the appearance of the number 432 000 (the length of the Kali Yuga) in four very different cultures (Hindu, Chaldean, Chinese, and Icelandic) has been noted for quite some time.

See also [ edit ]

  • Portal for Hinduism
  • Portal for India

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ A divine year equals 360 years on Earth. According to one set of beliefs, the gods live in the far northern hemisphere of the sky. Between the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, the Sun is directly overhead in the northern hemisphere because of Earth's axial tilt. The Gods' Daytime officially begins at this time. During the time between the autumnal and vernal equinox, on the other hand, the Sun is directly overhead in the southern hemisphere. This time of day is known as the "night of the gods." The entire tropical solar year is celebrated as the day of the gods when added together. [2] A divine year consists of 360 such days of the gods.
  2. ^ The overarching term " yuga It's common to hear instead of the more precise term " catur-yuga " A kalpa is said to last for one thousand years. catur-yuga The Bhagavad-Gita, Chapter 12 2 (" catur-yuga Bhagavad Gita 8.17 and [9]" yuga ") [10]
  3. ^ Approximately 36,000 solar years (100 divine years) pass between each Kali-yuga-sandhi.
    References: * Sandhya, 3102   BCE – 32,899   CE
    There are 392 899 Sandhyamsa.   CE - 428,899   CE
  4. ^ Some versions of the Mahabharata include Chapter 224 as CCXXIV. 224
  5. ^ a b c Common mistakes in calculating from 1   BCE to 1   Common Era instead of Anno Domini The year 0 does not exist.
  6. ^ The dates in René Guénon's Yuga Cycle table are based on two sources: Gaston Georgel's 1949 book Les Quatre ges de L'Humanité (The Four Ages of Humanity) and Jean Robin's book from the early 1980s.
  7. ^ Measured using the standard of the Sun

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ (Burgess, 1935, pages) The Surya Siddhanta makes no distinction between the sidereal and tropical year (288, 289) because it associates the vernal equinox with the First Point of Aries (verses 45-51).
  2. ^ a b c Joscelyn Godwin's 2011 Prophecies, Traditions, and Occult Reveals About Atlantis and the Eternal Return of Time Originary Customs pp  300–301 ISBN 9781594778575
  3. ^ a b c d e "Merriam-Webster" (1999) This is Merriam-Webster's "Encyclopedia of World Religions." Published in (eds.) Wendy Doniger and John Stratton Hawley ) Merriam-Webster The Corporation DBA Merriam-Webster pp Comparing the Hindu year 445 to the Yuga year 1159: ISBN 0877790442
    Myths of Time and Eternity in Hinduism   In between each yuga is a period known as "dawn" and "dusk." With its dawn and dusk of 400 god-years each, the Krita yuga lasts 4,800 god-years in total; the Treta yuga lasts 3,600 god-years; the Dvapara yuga lasts 2,400 god-years; and the current yuga, Kali, lasts 1,200 god-years. Thus, the duration of a mahayuga is 12,000 eons of gods.   Taking into account the length of one god-year (360 human years), the duration of a mahayuga is 4,320,000 years. Brahma's full life span is 100 years, so we are currently living in the middle of his life cycle, which consists of two thousand mahayugas, which together make up one kalpa (eon) [and pralaya]. After each kalpa, the universe enters a state of dormancy known as pralaya. It would appear that the universe will end when Brahma dies, but just as there are an infinite number of Brahmas, so too is there a new universe born with the birth of each Brahma.
    There is a correlation between the shortening of the yugas and the deterioration of humanity's spiritual and physical well-being. There were four such yugas (or   after the results of an Indian dice game) comprise a mahayuga (also known as a "great yuga").   The first yuga (Krita) lasted for 1,728,000 years and was a time of perfection. Beginning in 3102 BCE and lasting for another 432,000 years is the Kali yuga, the fourth and most depraved of the yugas. Kali yuga's end will usher in a period of great destruction due to fire and flood, followed by a period of creation as the cycle begins again. Vishnu's tenth and final AVATAR, KALKI, is described in a partially competing vision of time as bringing an end to the current cosmic cycle by destroying the evil forces that rule the Kali yuga and re-establishing the idealistic Krita yuga.
  4. For further reading: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, and j Gupta, S V (2010) "Time and Its Measurement" In Robert H. Hull, Richard M. Osgood Jr., Jurgen P. Parisi, and Hans W. Warlimont (eds. ) The Three Time Periods as Metrics Systema Internacional de Unitas Materials Science, a Springer Series, Volume 122 Springer pp  6–8 ISBN 9783642007378 Equal to one solar year is one Deva day. A year in the life of a deva (36, 000 solar years) is equivalent to 100 365-day years. Satya Yuga (four charnas of 1,728,000 solar years), Treta Yuga (three charnas of 1,296,000 solar years), Dvapara Yuga (two charnas of 864,000 solar years), and Kali Yuga (one charna of 432 years) make up the four Yugas that make up Mahayuga, which lasts 12,000 Deva (divine) years (4,320,000 solar years). 000 eons of the sun) There are 71 Mahayugas in a Manvantara, or 306,720,000 solar years. Each Sandhya lasts as long as Satya yuga (1,728,000 solar years), when the entire Earth is submerged in water, and one kalpa (day of Brahma) is equal to one Adi Sandhya, fourteen Manvantaras, and fourteen Sandhya Kalas. One Brahma Day is equivalent to one thousand Brahma Nights (Bhagavad-gita 8.3). 17) Age of Brahma: 311 B.C. 4,000,000,000,000,000 solar years) is equivalent to 100 years (with 360 days per year) At 50 Brahma years old, we are well into the second half of Parardha's life. A new Brahma is born into the universe every 100 years. We are now in the first day of the 28th year of the 51st year of the second Parardha of the 7th (Vaivasvata) Manu's reign. The current Brahma cycle is in its 51st year, making the elapsed time equivalent to about 155 trillion years. In the proleptic Julian calendar, the current Kali Yuga (Iron Age) began on the night of 17/18 February 3102 BC.
  5. ^ "Srimad Bhagavatam, Chapter 12:4.2 (Bhagavata Purana)" Veda-based Bhaktivedanta Retrieved 2020-05-10
    catur yuga sahasra tu brahma o dinam ucyate
    2 sa kalpo yatra manava caturda vm-pate

    Two thousand years are divided into four ages, catur-yuga ] make up what is called a kalpa, or a day in Brahma’s calendar. Fourteen Manus come and go during that time, your Majesty the King.
  6. ^ It is verse 8.17 of the Bhagavad Gita. (Sanskrit and English) Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Adapted from the original by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Trust for Bhaktivedanta Books 1968 LCCN 68008322 Wikidata Q854700 Retrieved 2020-05-10
    Sahasra Yuga Prophecy: Ahar Yad Brahmao Vidu
    rtri yugasahasrnt tehortravido jan 17

    (17) A human lifetime can be estimated to be [ yuga The sum of these parts is equal to Brahma's day. And that's how long his night lasts, too.
  7. ^ "युग (yuga)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "yuga" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "Yuga" Knowledge Archive 29 June 2012 Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "युज् (yuj)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "*yeug-" Etymological Dictionary (Online) Retrieved 2021-02-27
  8. ^ "चतुर् (catur)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "caturyuga" A Spoken-Sanskrit Dictionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    Said in unison: "Caturyuga, Catur-yuga." Reference Books Tuesday, November 21, 2017 Retrieved 2021-02-27
  9. ^ a b c Freda Matchett and Michio Yano (2003) The Puranas (Chapter Six) and the Calendar, Astrology, and Astronomy (Chapter Eighteen) (Part Three)" Gavin Flood, editor. ) A Guide to Hinduism: The Blackwell Companion Blackwell's Press pp  139–140, 390 ISBN 0631215352
  10. ^ As the citation reads, "rmad-Bhgavatam (Bhgavata Pura) 12.2.39," Veda-based Bhaktivedanta Retrieved 2020-05-10
    kta treta dvapara ca kshatriya buddhi satya nirman yugam
    The Sanskrit phrase reads, "

    (39) The four-age pattern [ catur-yugam Repeating cycles of the four ages [Satya, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali] among Earth's living creatures
  11. ^ "दैव (daiva)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "daivayuga" Words and Phrases in Spoken Sanskrit Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "Daiva-yuga, Daiva-yuga" Knowledge Archive Friday, January 29th, 2019 Retrieved 2021-02-27
  12. ^ "देव (deva)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "devayuga" English to Sanskrit Dictionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "Deva-yuga, Deva-yuga." Knowledge Archive Tuesday, August 15, 2017 Retrieved 2021-02-27
  13. ^ "दिव्य (divya)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
  14. ^ "महा (mahā)" Wiktionary Retrieved 2021-02-27
    "mahAyuga" Words and Phrases in Spoken Sanskrit Retrieved 2021-02-27
    Say it with me now: "Mahayuga, Maha-yuga, Mahyuga." Reference Books Friday, January 6th, 2019 Retrieved 2021-02-27
  15. ^ "A Note Regarding Kali and Dvpara and Their Role in the Dice" Knowledge Archive 29 June 2019 Retrieved 2021-03-04 Kta, Tret, Dvpara, and Kali are the four stages, and they roughly correspond to the classical Gold, Silver, Brass, and Iron Ages. The Sanskrit names are arranged in a value-descending fashion, just like the sides of a die. So Kta is the four-dot side, and Kali, with just one dot, is doomed to lose every time.
  16. ^ Brown, W When Norman (1964) "Pachisi, Chaupar, and Chausar: Three Indian Games" The Journal of Exploration Vol  6, no  2 The Penn Museum p  34 ISSN 0014-4738 We can reasonably date the present-day Rig-Veda version to before 1000 B.C.E. C , mentions the use of dice, and one of its hymns (Book 10, 34) is a charm to break a hopeless gambler's addiction to the game. Gambling with dice is mentioned in the Atharva Veda as well (two). 3; 4 38; 6 118; 7 52; 7 109) We don't know how the Aryans of Rig-Vedic times used the dice they made from the nuts of the vibhidaka tree. In the ritualistic literature of the centuries after the Rig-Veda, roughly between 800 and 600 B.C.E., dicing is depicted as a fitting vice of kings. C , a game of dice was part of the consecration ceremonies for a king, which the new monarch was expected to win every time. There are two well-known stories in the Mahabharata about kings who were brought low by gambling.
  17. ^ Samhita of Vishnu
  18. ^ September 1936 Kane, P. V. Bhagwat, N.; Sukthankar, V. S.; Fyzee, A. A. A. K (eds ) Kalivarjya, or "Kali Age Prohibited Activities," Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Section The Bombay Asian Cultural Association 12 (1–2): 4
  19. ^ Manmatha Nath Dutt (1903) The number 231 (CCXXXI) is the chapter number. The Mahabharata, into Modern English Prose (Very Close to the Original Sanskrit Text) Vol Chapter 12 (the Book of Peace) Elysium Press, Calcutta p  351 (12 231 17, 19–21, 29)
  20. ^ "Bühler, G." (1886) First Chapter: "The Creation" In F. Max Müller (ed. ) Extracts from seven commentaries on the translated version of Manu's Laws Eastern Religions' Holy Texts Vol  XXV Press, Oxford University p  20 (1 67–71)
  21. ^ Reverend Burgess 1860's "Ebenezer" (1935) Of the Average Planetary Motions, Chapter 1. Phanindralal Gangooly (ed. ) Notes and an appendix to the English translation of the Sûrya-Siddhânta, a textbook on Hindu astronomy. Calcutta University pp  7–9 (1 13–17)
  22. ^ Prof. Krishnamurthy V (2019) "The Cosmic Flow of Time According to the Scriptures," Chapter 20. Get to Know the Hindu Scriptures Press for Ideas ISBN 9781684669387 In accordance with the standard method of measuring time,   So, according to Brahma's reckoning, we are currently in his 51st year, first month, first day, seventh manvantara, twenty-eighth mahabharata, fourth yuga, or kaliyuga.
  23. ^ Yuvraj Krishan, in 1999 The Mystery of Gaea Exposed Motilal Banarsidass, a publishing house in Delhi pp  79–80 ISBN 978-81-208-1413-4
  24. ^ John A. Grimes (1995) Ganapati: The Internal Anthem State University of New York Press, Albany, NY. pp  101–104 ISBN 0-7914-2439-1 According to the Gaea Purana, Gaapati has appeared in different forms during each of the four yugas. Vinayaka (or Mahotkaa), the son of Kyapa and Aditi, is Gaea's incarnation in the kta yuga.   Gaapati takes the form of Lord Shiva's son, Mayuresvara, during the Treta Yuga.   Gaea takes the form of Gajnna, the son of Lord Shiva, during the dvapara yuga.   Gaapati takes the form of Dhmraketu (or rpakara) during the kali yuga.
  25. ^ Greg Bailey (2008) Krkhaa, Second Section of Gaeapura Published by Harrassowitz in Wiesbaden. p  5–8 ISBN 978-3-447-05472-0
  26. ^ Part 1: 50 Cities of Bali (41), 3, 55 7 The Vayupurana, Book One Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1960 pp  377–382
  27. ^ Part 2: 5 133, 35 73, 35 77, 36 74–85, 37 26–32, 38 21–22, 46 29 (Oblation of Bali) Part Two of the Vyu Purana Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi 1960
  28. ^ "Srimad Bhagavatam" (Bhagavata Purana) on September 10, 1951. Vedanta Bhaktivedanta Sanga Retrieved 2020-05-18 Although Lord Ramachandra ascended to the throne in the Treta yuga, His benevolent rule made that era feel more like the Satya yuga. There was complete and utter joy among the faithful.
  29. ^ Stephen K. "The Lord Rama Myth or Reality?" Books by Stephen Knapp that Explore Eastern Philosophy, Vedic Traditions, and Spirituality Retrieved 2020-05-17 The Vayu Purana (70 47–48) (printed by Motilal Banarsidass) provides an account of Ravana's long life. It describes the 24th Treta-yuga battle in which Ravana and his followers were killed, and how Ravana's penance merit was waning when he met Lord Rama, son of Dasarath.   Additional information about the various avataras, including when Bhagawan Rama first appeared at the end of the 24th Treta-yuga, can be found in the Matsya Purana (47/240,243-246).
  30. ^ Vettam Mani (born in 1975) "RAKTAJA" An All-Inclusive Dictionary with Emphasis on the Ancient Texts of Epic and Purana Encyclopedia of the Holy Scriptures M. Banarsidass Motilal p  630 ISBN 0842608222 The following is an excerpt from Chapter 14 of the Padma Purana.   Devendra objected to Vishnu's order above on legal grounds, saying, "You who incarnated yourself as Rama in the twenty-seventh yuga of the last Manvantara for the purpose of killing Ravana, killed my son Bali." So, no, I'd rather not have a son named Nara. Vishnu assured Indra that he would be a companion of Nara (Arjuna), who would be born as Indra's son, as a punishment for Indra's error in killing Bali.
  31. ^ Swami Parmeshwaranand Puranic Encyclopedic Dictionary Vol 1 (A-C) Sarup & Sons, New Delhi. p  169 ISBN 81-7625-226-3 Traditional Indian belief holds that the sage Vyasa compiled the Vedas, wrote the Mahabharata, and contributed to many other works. This custom is echoed in the [Bhagavata Purana].  
  32. ^ H. H. Wilson (1940) Traditional Hindu Mythology and the Vishnu Purana. John Murray, Publisher; London. p  272 The great Rishis of the Dwápara era arranged the Vedas twenty-eight times in the Vaivaswata Manwantara; as a result, eighteen and twenty Vyásas have died, and the Veda has been divided into four parts by these scholars during their lifetimes.
  33. ^ Swami Sri Yukteswar, 1990, [1st ed. 1894] Kaivalya Darsanam, or The Holy Science Spiritual Community for Awakening pp  7–17 ISBN 0876120516
  34. ^ a b (2001) [1st ed.] Guénon, René. 1970] Samuel D. Fohr (ed ) The French title of this work translates to "Traditional Forms and Cosmic Cycles." Henry D. Fohr, translator. Perennis, Sophia pp  5–8 ISBN 0900588179
  35. ^ Renée Guénon and Gaston Georgel's "Cycle Timeline" The Sufi Love Path 20 April 2019 Retrieved Friday, November 13 2020
  36. ^ Daniélou, Alain. (1987). [1st ed. 1985] "While the Gods Play" is a French translation of "While the Gods Play: Shaiva Oracles and Predictions on the Historical Cycles and the Fate of Mankind." Barbara Bailey and Michael Baker are the translators. Organization for Inner Traditions pp  193–198 ISBN 0892811153
  37. ^ Author: Bolton, Robert Y., Y. The Cosmological Order: A History of the World from a Universal Perspective In the words of Sophia Perennis p  64 ISBN 978-0-900588-31-0
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