Object-Oriented Programming Concepts: Polymorphism, Encapsulation, Data Abstraction, and Inheritance

2023-01-03 09:25:37 - Grace Browns Grace Browns has been a lifestyle, fashion, and beauty writer for over 5 years, and she currently serves as a senior editor at 422346.com.

The term "object-oriented programming" is used to describe a programming paradigm popularized by high-level languages like Java and Python. Polymorphism, encapsulation, abstraction, and inheritance are the four pillars upon which object-oriented programming is founded. Procedural programming is another paradigm in which the codes are written in a sequential fashion. Both Python and Java are high-level programming languages that support multiple paradigms, or ways of writing programs. It is the programmer's expertise and the nature of the problems he is attempting to solve that inform his choice of programming paradigm. OOP, on the other hand, unquestionably makes programming simpler, quicker, more dynamic, and more secure. This is one of the primary factors that has propelled Java and Python to the positions of most widely used programming languages in the world.

These Object-Oriented Programming paradigms are not difficult to grasp and are necessary for learning Java, Python, or any other object-oriented programming language. Take a look at them with me, would you?

Just What Does the Term "Inheritance" Mean

If you're using an Object Oriented Programming (OOP) approach, your Java or Python code will be written in objects or blocks. Objects can collaborate by making use of one another's blocks' properties or by inheriting one another's functionality. Through inheritance, we can guarantee that our code will be used again and again. A programmer can inherit from the millions of libraries available for use in Java and Python. It is possible for other classes or functions to inherit and expand upon the characteristics of a base class. Two distinct categories of courses Classes can be divided into two types: those that inherit characteristics from a parent class, called base classes, and those that do not. Object-oriented programming relies heavily on inheritance. It's how classes in OOP languages like Java and Python take on the properties of their ancestors.

Attributes of a parent class can be inherited by a child class. DDL (Dynamic-link library) is an example of a library that uses parent classes. Classes defined in a DDL are accessible to other programs and procedures.

A mother and her child are an everyday illustration of inheritance. Characteristics like their parents' height, voice, and eye color could be passed down to the child. Identical offspring can be produced repeatedly by the mother.

Creating a "Move Robot" function or class that instructs a robot to move is possible. In addition, the "Move Robot" Class can be inherited by other programs so that new methods and functions can be added without having to rewrite the original ones. This class can be extended with a few lines of code using the if and else statements to specify conditions under which a robot should move and run. Inheritance allows for the creation of multiple robots that share the same characteristics as the "Move Robot" base class, guaranteeing the reuse of existing code.

In short, Inheritance is worried about how classes and their methods relate to one another, much like a parent and a child. It is possible for a child to inherit some of each parent's characteristics at birth. Like multiple offspring can take on their parent's traits, inheritance ensures that code can be used more than once.

When writing new code, we first look for a superclass that already implements the functionality we need. This could be a new function, a new method, or a new class. Our new class can be derived from that one. Java's "Extends" keyword is used for this purpose, while in Python, the class's attributes can be inherited simply by invoking its name.  


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This is an approach to programming in which implementation details are abstracted away. It drastically simplifies program construction. Only methods are made public when using Encapsulation. The programmer is free to focus on the operations themselves rather than the underlying implementation. For instance, a programmer can use a DLL without worrying about the date and time class's codes; instead, he can use the data and time class by calling it up with public variables. Python and Java both have the concept of private variables, where hidden classes can be defined, and public variables, where users can access those classes. With this method, changes to a class won't affect the methods that call on it, making it easier to update and maintain. When making changes to a class that is being called in ten different methods, you only need to update that class once. Modifying the class triggers an immediate refresh of the methods. Encapsulation also protects your information from prying eyes. One of the names for encapsulation is "Data-Hidden."  

As a barrier that prevents unauthorized programs from accessing internal data, encapsulation serves an important purpose.  

Encapsulation is a technique for enforcing modularity and a unification of data and code.  


Existing in a variety of forms is what is meant by the term polymorphism. In both Java and Python, variables, functions, and objects can take on a variety of different shapes and sizes. Polymorphism comes in two flavors: run-time and compile-time. It's possible for runtime to change while an application is running, and compile-time to change while code is being written.

Polymorphism in Object-Oriented Programming is best illustrated by the cursor behavior. Depending on the user's actions or the current program mode, a cursor can take on a variety of shapes, such as an arrow, line, cross, or other symbols. Polymorphism allows for the definition of new behaviors and attributes within a method or subclass while retaining access to the features of the parent class. A class showing the time and date can have an inherited method that, in addition to showing the time and date, shows a greeting to the user. Polymorphism is an important part of object-oriented programming because it helps achieve the goals of simplicity, extensibility, and low maintenance.

The ability to inherit properties and methods from one class into another is what makes it possible to structure classes into hierarchies. Then you can play around with it to your heart's content, adding to or subtracting from its functionality. With polymorphism, the right method gets called depending on the type of the object that called it.  

As a result of the differences between operating systems, the code for a given program may not function properly. Polymorphism in OOP refers to the ability of code to display varying behaviors depending on the platform it's running on. If you have four people work together, you can make a class called "Move," and then make animals that inherit from that class. However, it's unclear what kinds of animals they might breed. Thus, polymorphism would enable the animals to move, albeit in a variety of morphologies that reflect their unique physical characteristics.

Although A's newly-made Snail would be able to move thanks to the move class it inherits, the snail would instead crawl.

B makes a Kangaroo with the move class inherited, but it can only jump.

When C makes a Dog, it inherits the class for movement, but actual dogs just walk around.

Since D's Fish is an instance of the move class, it can swim.

These animals are all alive and well, albeit in radically different guises, thanks to a phenomenon called polymorphism. It would not be possible to predict the programs' behavior prior to execution.


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Java and Python both employ a programming technique known as abstraction, in which only the most pertinent information is exposed to the user. To abstract is to focus on concepts rather than concrete instances. It's the same as if a user ran a program (Web browser) without knowing how it was built. Depending on your needs, Java and Python both have abstract classes or interfaces to help you achieve abstraction. Abstraction in Java is implemented by NetBeans and Eclipse IDE, and in Python by Django.

A programmer can use an IDE to create a UI without worrying about the underlying HTML codes. To put it simply, abstraction only shows the user the most crucial information.


Object-oriented programming is built on the principles of modularity, code reuse, extensibility, and security. Encapsulation, Abstraction, Inheritance, and Polymorphism are the means by which these are realized. In order to be considered an OOP language, a language needs to support the following four pillars: You don't need to know how the radio works to turn it on, but you can learn about it through abstraction so that only the information that is useful to you is shown to you. Simplifying concepts through abstraction As the name implies, inheritance is the process by which one class's methods and functions take on the characteristics of another class. The primary goal is to promote code reuse, which speeds up the software development process. The principle of DRY (don't repeat yourself) in programming dictates that duplicate or otherwise similar code should not be used. Replace it with a single, centralized class whose methods are called from elsewhere to expand functionality as needed. Encapsulation is the practice of making classes internal so that they cannot be altered by external codes, and polymorphism is the ability of computer code to have multiple meanings or functions.


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