Practice IELTS reading: a neuroscientist explains how to think outside the box

2023-02-25 01:54:58 - Grace Browns Grace Browns has been a lifestyle, fashion, and beauty writer for over 5 years, and she currently serves as a senior editor at
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There has been a paradigm shift in how neuroscientists approach studying the brain in the past ten years.

Today, we know that certain regions of the brain's neural circuitry are causally linked to the choices that people make. Because of these findings, a new academic discipline called neuroeconomics has emerged to investigate how the brain can be trained to succeed in a competitive business world that prizes originality and fresh approaches. Iconoclasm is the mark of a mind capable of this. To sum up, an iconoclast is someone who challenges accepted norms and practices.

Iconoclasts are set apart from the norm according to this definition, but a more accurate description would say that they are Their peculiar mental makeup perception, anxiety, and emotional acuity are the three main facets of this. These three tasks all depend on distinct neural circuits in the brain. Some may argue that one's personality, not their brain, is what determines whether or not they are capable of original, even revolutionary, thought. However, the understanding that our decision-making abilities are constrained by our brain's anatomy gave rise to the field of neuroeconomics. Knowing these limitations helps us to comprehend why some people choose to follow a different rhythm.

Realizing that the brain has finite resources is the first step It has evolved to be as efficient as possible within its limited energy budget, which is roughly that of a 40-watt light bulb. Therein lies the greatest obstacle that prevents the average person from engaging in iconoclastic behavior. In the case of visual input, for instance, the brain will prioritize a speedy interpretation when given the choice. Thus It'll be based on a combination of what we've learned in the in order to make sense of what it is seeing, and any other source of information, such as what other people say This occurs frequently. When processing information, the brain uses efficient shortcuts of which we are usually unaware.

All of the noise in our heads is just a product of our biology and electricity, but we treat it as if it were the real world. Not everything you take in through your senses—such as what you see or hear—is what constitutes your perception. Beyond the quantifiable nature of photons and sound waves, The brain creates what we call "perception."

Iconoclasm relies heavily on points of view. Iconoclasts challenge established norms and values. Efficiency traps are not a blind spot in their thinking. equal to what a typical human brain can handle Iconoclasts, whether naturally so or through education, have developed strategies for avoiding the cognitive biases that plague the rest of us. One's capacity to perceive is not a fixed feature of the brain. Being something that must be taught presents both a problem and a chance for improvement. To put it simply, the brain has a hard time making sense of sensory input. There are various meanings that can be attributed to any sensory input the brain receives. The one picked is merely the best hypothesis the mind can come up with. These hypotheses are grounded in the relative probabilities of various interpretations and are heavily influenced by prior experience and, crucially for would-be iconoclasts, the opinions of others.

If you want to see things from a new perspective, the best way to do it is to expose your mind to things it has never seen before. When presented with something new, the brain is freed from relying solely on stored memories and is instead compelled to form fresh evaluations. Iconoclasts who are truly successful have an extraordinary openness to new and different experiences. Iconoclasts, contrary to the norm, are seen to welcome change and innovation.

New experiences can be exciting, but they can also set off the brain's natural defenses. The average person is paralyzed by fear, which prevents him from engaging in iconoclastic thinking. Iconoclastic thinking is hindered by two of the many types of fear that people experience: fear of the unknown and fear of social rejection. These fears may not seem significant at first. One-third of people suffer from anxiety related to public speaking, despite the fact that everyone will have to do it at some point. Because of this, it can no longer be classified as a mental illness. It's just another facet of human nature that doesn't stop iconoclasts from reacting in the ways they see fit.

Last but not least, iconoclasts who want to succeed must be good salespeople. Because of this, it's important to have social intelligence. The ability to read and influence people in a professional context is known as "social intelligence." The last ten years have seen a plethora of new findings about the brain's social circuits and how they operate during group decision-making processes. Neuroscience has shed light on the regions of the brain that govern traits like theory of mind, compassion, justice, and group membership. When it comes to persuading others, these brain areas are crucial. Understanding how others see you is crucial in social situations. A person's reputation or how enthusiastic they are perceived to be can make or break a business deal. The infrequency of successful iconoclasts can be explained by the intertwining of perception and social decision making.

In every field, from the arts to the sciences to the business world, innovation is sparked by those who dare to challenge the status quo. They bring fresh ideas and approaches that committees can't always come up with. They don't care about following the rules. Iconoclasts risk being shunned and humiliated, but they also have the potential to be invaluable members of any team. Knowing the inner workings of the iconoclastic mind is essential for success in any endeavor.

Do the following details fit the author's argument in the Reading Passage?

Use boxes 6 through 11 to record your thoughts.

If what it says supports what the author says, then yes.

No, if it disproves what the author has said.

NOT PROVIDED if the author's opinion cannot be determined

Different experiences teach the brain to approach problems in new ways.
In a word, YES     Locate

Iconoclasts have an unusual willingness to try new things (7 YESNONOT GIVEN).
The correct response is YES.     Locate

Most people are too timid to try new things, so the answer is 8 YESNONOT GIVEN.
This question has a NOT GIVEN answer.

9 YESNONOT GIVEN It's easy to get over your fears if you adopt an iconoclastic perspective.
Answer: NO     Locate

A reduction in self-consciousness makes it possible to focus on more pressing concerns (10 YESNONOT GIVEN).

Fear of public speaking is a mental disorder, according to 11 of those who answered yes.
Answer: NO     Locate

Below, fill in the blanks with the appropriate ending, A-E.

Fill in the appropriate letter (A-E) in boxes 12-14.

To achieve an, one needs to be both perceptive and socially intelligent.

B analyzes the processes by which organizations make collective decisions.

C's contributions span the artistic and scientific spectrums.

D leaves one vulnerable to disapproval and hostility.

E requires familiarity with human resource practices employed by various organizations.

12 Being a successful iconoclast requires rigorous A B C D E thinking.
Answer: A     Locate

Iconoclasts can use the ABCDE framework provided by the social brain concept, which is 13.
Answer: B     Locate

14 Iconoclasts are valuable because they often think outside the box (ABCD).
Answer: C     Locate

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