Transform Your Matrix: Unleash the Power of the Adjoint (Adjugate Matrix)

2023-05-16 07:29:32 - Grace Browns Grace Browns has been a lifestyle, fashion, and beauty writer for over 5 years, and she currently serves as a senior editor at

Let's refresh our memory about matrices before delving into the concept of adjoint matrices. In linear algebra, a matrix is an ordered rectangular arrangement of numbers or functions, with its elements or entries designated as such. A matrix with m rows and n columns is referred to as an m×n matrix, or a matrix of order m×n. The classification of matrices is based on the pattern in which elements are set up with differing numbers of rows and columns. This article will give you an in-depth understanding of what adjoint matrices are, how to find them for different matrices, as well as relevant formulas and examples.

Definition of Adjoint Matrices

The adjoint of a square matrix A = [aij]n×n is obtained by transposing the matrix [Aij]n×n, where Aij is the cofactor of the element aij. Put simply, the transpose of a cofactor matrix of the square matrix is referred to as the adjoint of the matrix, and is expressed as adj A. The adjunct matrix is also commonly known as the adjugate matrix.

Calculation of the inverse matrix requires determining the adjoint of a given matrix. This is only possible with square matrices.

Check out what square matrices are by clicking this link here.

Adjoint Matrix Formula

Obtaining the formula for the adjoint matrix involves the use of cofactors and the transpose of a matrix. However, calculating the adjugate matrix for a 2 × 2 matrix is easy. Here is a breakdown of the procedure to determine the adjoint matrix for a given matrix.

2 × 2 Adjoint Matrix

Suppose A is the 2 × 2 matrix given as:

  • The adjoint of the matrix, therefore, is:
  • Here,
  • A11 = Cofactor of a11
  • A12 = Cofactor of a12
  • A21 = Cofactor of a21
  • A22 = Cofactor of a22
  • Alternatively, calculating adj A involves changing the signs of a12 and a21 while interchanging a11 and a22. This is illustrated below:
Adjoint of 2x2 matrix

Learn how to calculate the cofactor of the elements of a matrix by clicking this link here.

3 × 3 Adjoint Matrix

Consider the 3 × 3 matrix below:

  • The adjugate matrix for this matrix is:
  • Here,
  • The above formula can be expanded as:
  • To discover a matrix's cofactors, we may apply the ensuing formula:
  • Cofactor for an element aij = Cij = (−1)i j det(Mij).
  • In this equation, the item det(Mij) is regarded as the minor of aij.
  • What's Meant by a Minor?
Adjoint of 3x3 matrix

The minor of an element within a matrix indicates the determinant obtained by expunging the row and column in which the said component exists. For instance, in the determinant of a matrix A, any given minor Mij is considered a (n - 1) x (n - 1) matrix created by depleting the ith row and jth column.

Explaining the Cofactor

A cofactor refers to a number achieved through eliminating the row and column of a particular element in the form of a square or rectangle. In terms of the element's position, the cofactor may be preceded by a negative or positive sign.

For any array A of magnitude n x n and Mij regarded as an (n - 1) x (n - 1) matrix obtained by deleting the ith row and jth column, det(Mij) is referred to as the minor of aij. Consequently, the formula required to find an element aij's cofactor, Cij, is:

  • Cij = (−1)i j det(Mij).
  • As a result, the cofactor is at all times recorded through plus or minus signs.
  • Moreover, it's vital to read about Minors and Cofactors.
  • Determining the Adjoint of a Matrix
  • We can deduce the general formula for a matrix of magnitude n x n when figuring out its adjugate matrix. Supposing A denotes an array of magnitude n x n, then we can represent its adjugate matrix as:
  • In this case, the adjoint for this matrix is as follows:

Here, A11, A12,..., A21, A22...Ann represent the cofactors of the elements a11, a12,..., a21, a22,..., ann, separately.

Properties of Adjugate Matrices

Listed below are some of the vital properties of adjugate matrices:

  • Suppose A denotes any square matrix of magnitude n. We can define the following:
  • A(adj A) = (adj A) A = A I, whereby I is an identity matrix of magnitude n.
  • For a zero matrix 0, adj(0) = 0.
  • For a given identity matrix I, adj(I) = I.
  • For any scalar k, adj(kA) = kn-1 adj(A).
  • adj(AT) = (adj A)T.

det(adj A), i.e., |adj A| = (det A)n-1.

If A is an invertible matrix and A-1 stands for its inverse, then: adj A = (det A)A-1.

adj A may be inverted with the inverse (det A)-1 A, that is, adj(A-1) = (adj A)-1.

Supposing A and B stand for two matrices of magnitude n, then adj(AB) = (adj B)(adj A).

To determine the adjugate matrix of A raised to the power of any non-negative integer p, the equation adj(Ap) = (adj A)p holds true. This formula also applies when A is invertible, irrespective of a negative exponent value.


If this concept of invertible matrices is new to you, click on this link and give yourself the opportunity to understand it better.

For visual aid and additional insight on the adjoint of a matrix, please watch the following clip:

  • Demonstration of Adjoint of a Matrix

  • Example 1:
  • Solution:
  • Given that a11 = 2, a12 = 3, a21 = 1, and a22 = 4, we can solve for the cofactors:
  • A11 = a22 = 4
  • A12 = -a12 = -3
  • A21 = -a21 = -1
  • A22 = a11 = 2
  • Example 2:
  • Solution:
  • Given that Cij represents the cofactor of element aij in matrix A, we can solve for the individual cofactors of each element in A:
  • First Row Cofactors:
  • Second Row Cofactors:
  • Third Row Cofactors:
  • Based on these results, the adjugate matrix of A can be calculated accordingly.
  • To help deepen your understanding of the concept, try practicing with the following adjoint of a matrix questions:
  • - Find the adjoint of the matrix.
  • - Find the adjugate matrix of A.
  • - Calculate the adjoint of A.
Adjoint of a matrix example 2.3Adjoint of a matrix example 2.2Adjoint of a matrix example 2.1

Interested in exploring further concepts related to matrices? Download BYJU’S – The Learning App, and do so with ease and efficiency.

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