# Wikipedia's Nibble

2023-03-16 00:11:38 - Grace Browns Grace Browns has been a lifestyle, fashion, and beauty writer for over 5 years, and she currently serves as a senior editor at 422346.com.

Here's a nibble-by-nibble-sorted table of the font sizes used in the octal code, starting on page

For the sake of consistency with the spelling of byte, a nibble[1] (sometimes nybble, nyble, or nybl) is a grouping of four bits. Besides those names, you may know it as half-byte[4] or tetrade. In the field of networking and telecommunications, the nibble is commonly referred to as a semi-octet, quadbit, or quartet [5, 6]. A nibble contains sixteen ( 24 possible values One hexadecimal (hex) digit, from 0 to F, can represent a nibble. [11]

Since two hexadecimal digits (00-FF) make up a full byte (octet), nibbles of information are often displayed in pairs. There are times when the complete set of 256-byte values is shown as a 16×16 table that displays the hexadecimal values in a format that is easy to read

The basic building block of four-bit computer architectures are groups of four bits. Early microprocessors, calculators, and computers all used this design. Even today, some microcontrollers make use of them. To avoid confusion with nibbles, the term "characters" is used here to refer to groups of four bits. [1]

## History [ edit ]

The idea of a nibble being "half a byte" comes from the fact that "byte" is a homophone of the English word "bite." As of 2014[4], David B. Washington State University emeritus professor Benson recalled jokingly using (and possibly coining) the term nibble as "half a byte" and unit of storage required to hold a binary-coded decimal (BCD) decimal digit in 1958 while conversing with a programmer from Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Editorials from the 1980s publications Kilobaud and Byte pointed out that the spelling of nybble was similar to that of byte. Another of the earliest documented uses of the word "nybble" was in 1977, when it was used by Citibank's consumer banking technology group. Using the 'NABBLE' as its fundamental information unit, it developed a standard for exchanging transactional messages between ATMs and Citibank's data centers before the introduction of ISO 8583.

Nibble refers to the amount of memory used to store a single digit in packed decimal format (BCD) on an IBM mainframe. For quicker calculations and less headaches during debugging, use this method. One decimal digit is stored in each of the four "nibbles" of an 8-bit byte. The variable's final (rightmost) digit is set aside for the sign. That's why 5 bytes can "pack" a variable that can hold up to 9 digits. Reading the numbers in a hex dump, where each byte is represented by two hexadecimal digits, made debugging much simpler. 16×16 = 28 The five-byte BCD representation of the decimal value +314159265 is: 31 41 59 26 5C.

In the past, a group of more than four bits was sometimes called a "nybble." Disk drive control and group-coded recording were both largely implemented in software in the Apple II line of microcomputers. To save information to a disk, 256-byte pages had to be converted into groups of 5-bit (and later 6-bit) nibbles, and to retrieve it, the process had to be reversed. It's also worth noting that the Integrated Woz Machine's 1982 documentation repeatedly uses the term "8 bit nibble." For this reason, we now distinguish between bytes and octets or nibbles and quartets (or quadbits) whereas previously, the term byte meant a set of bits but not necessarily 8. Byte and nibble are terms that are almost never used today to express sizes other than 8-bit and 4-bit collections, respectively.

## Bites both small and large [ edit ]

The nibbles that contain the least significant bits and most significant bits of a byte are called "low nibbles" and "high nibbles," respectively. The leftmost bit in a graphical representation of a byte could stand for the most significant bit (MSB), just as the leftmost digit in a number in standard decimal notation is the most important. In such examples, the high nibble consists of the first four bits of the byte and the low nibble consists of the last four bits of the byte. For instance [17]

97 = (0110 0001)2 = 61hex, or ninety-seven

high nibble is 01102 ( 6hex The low nibble is 00012 ( 1hex ) Quantitatively, this means nibble-heavy > 1610 nibble-light ( 6 × 16 1 = 9710 )

## [ edit ]

The extraction of a high or low nibble from a byte requires a bitwise logical AND operation and, in some cases, a bit shift.

In C:

(((b) >> 4) & 0x0F) #define HI_NIBBLE(b) ((b) & 0x0F) #define LO_NIBBLE(b)

where b is a variable or constant with an integral data type, and the least-significant byte of b is used.

In this case, HI_NIBBLE(0xAB)==0xA and LO_NIBBLE(0xAB)=0xB.

When written in Common Lisp:

( defun hi-nibble ( b ) ( ldb ( byte 4 4 ) b )) ( defun lo-nibble ( b ) ( ldb ( byte 4 ) b ))

• Numbers in binary
• Computing syllable
• Word

## References [ edit ]

1. ^ a b c Howard A. Raphael , ed Dated November 1974. A Computer's Instruction Register and Decoder" (PDF) Logic Designers' Guide to the MCS-40 Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California, USA p  viii Archived (PDF) Dated as of March 3, 2020 in the Original Retrieved 2020-03-03 [ The standard eight-bit field is called a byte, while a four-bit field is called a nibble. [ ]
2. ^ Author: Hall, Douglas V. (1980) Calculators, Memory, and Other Digital Parts McGraw-Hill ISBN 0-07-025571-7
3. ^ Warren Jr , Henry S (2013) [2002] Delight for Hackers, Second Edition ) ISBN: 978-0-321-84268-8, published by Addison Wesley/Pearson Education, Inc. 0-321-84268-5
4. ^ a b Eric S. Raymond (1996) New Conlanger's Lexicon MIT Press p  333 ISBN 978-0-262-68092-9
5. ^ Author: Carr, John W. Abstracts from the Summer Conference on Digital Computing at the Computation Center, UNC-Chapel Hill, North Carolina C , 17-28 August, 1959 State-of-the-Art Digital Computer Research Vol  1 Compute Center, UNC-Chapel Hill p  211 These letters represent the numbers from zero to fifteen, so their binary representation needs to use 4 bits (one "tetrade").
6. ^ Ambrosius Paul Speiser (1965 [1961) (in German) The Fundamentals of Digital Computing: Hardware, Software, and System Reliability, Second Edition. ) Springer-Verlag / IBM, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland pp  6, 34, 165, 183, 208, 213, 215 LCCN 65-14624 0978
7. ^ Authors: Puzman, Josef, and Kubin, Boris From Independent PDNs to the Integrated Services Digital Network Scientific and Academic Publishing by Springer p  113 ISBN 978-1-4471-1737-7
8. ^ A. Ray Horak (2007) The New World Edition of Webster's Telecom Glossary Press of John Wiley and Sons p  402 ISBN 978-0-470-22571-4
9. ^ Author: Brewster, Ronald L. (1994) Three-Volume Set on Data-Based Communication and Networking Telecommunications from IEE Vol  31 Electrical Engineering Profession's Institution p  155 ISBN 978-0-85296-804-8 Each symbol in a data set stands for four individual bits of information.
10. ^ (2006-06-27) [1989] Courbis, Paul, and Sébastien Lalande. A Trip to the Center of the HP28c/s, Second Edition (in French) ) Editions de la Règle à Calcul, Paris, France OCLC 636072913 Original version published August 6, 2016 Retrieved 2015-09-06 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]
11. ^ Steve Heller's "1997" An Overview of C Professor Morgan Kaufmann p  27 ISBN 978-0-12-339099-8 The value represented by each hex digit (0-f) is exactly 4 bits.
12. ^ "Abbreviations And Acronyms" (PDF) The INTELLEC 4 Microcomputer System Programming Manual (Preliminary Edition): MCS-4 Assembly Language ) Intel Corporation; Santa Clara, California; USA In the month of December in 1973 pp  v, 2-6 MCS-030-1273-1 Archived (PDF) from the first of March, 2020 Retrieved 2020-03-02 [ [A bit is the smallest unit of information that can be represented in a computer. (There are only two possible values for a bit, 0 and 1.) [ Byte - An 8-bit sequence that uses a single memory address [ ] Character - A sequence of 4 adjacent bits of information [ ] (NB Note that the manual for the Intel 4004 uses the term character to refer to 4-bit rather than 8-bit data entities. Already in 1974, Intel's documentation for its successor processor 4040 shifted to use the more common term nibble for 4-bit entities. )
13. ^ Don D. Worth ; Pieter M. Lechner (May 1982) [1981] "Under Apple DOS" (now in its fourth printing of the first edition) ) Quality Software, Inc., Reseda, California, U.S.A. Retrieved 2017-03-21 The aforementioned references can be found at [7][8][9] Archived 9 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
14. ^ Donald D. Worth The; Lechner, Pieter M. (March 1985) [1984] The Area Below Apple ProDOS - Dedicated to the People Who Use Apple II Plus, Apple IIe, and Apple IIc Computers (PDF) (First Edition, Second Printing) ) Quality Software, Inc., of Chatsworth, California, USA ISBN 0-912985-05-4 LCCN 84-61383 Archived (PDF) Dated as of March21st, 2017 from the Original Retrieved 2017-03-21 [10]
15. ^ Protected Software Backup, File Management, and Data Recovery with Copy II Plus Version 9 for ProDOS/DOS (PDF) 9 0 1989-10-31 [1982] Central Point Software, Inc. This version is an archive of the original (PDF) on 2017-05-07 Retrieved 2017-03-21
16. ^ Dated February 1982 (1978) by Apple Computer, Inc. Details of the Integrated Woz Machine (IWM) (PDF) (19 ed ) Museum of Digital Art and Culture (DigBarn) Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-08-06 Retrieved 2016-08-06
17. ^ According to Baccala (April 1997). The "arithmetic of binary digits" Third Edition, Connected: An Internet Encyclopedia ) Date of original publication: August 6, 2016 Retrieved 2015-07-20

## Internet resources [ edit ]

• The "Apple Production Unit" May 1981
• 10th Grade Science: Life Processes with Complimentary Ncert Solutions 2023-07-25 00:51:45

Solution: The inner lining of the small intestine undergoes a structural modification, forming villi, which are finger-like projections. These villi serve to increase the surface area for the absorption of digested food. Furthermore, they have a high vascularity, meaning they are well-supplied

• Creating a Lovely and Simple Homemade Rakhi 2023-07-25 00:50:08

Creating Your Own Homemade RakhiThe glimmer in your eyes and the fervent desires in your heart paint a clear picture: you're filled with ideas for surprising your loved ones on Raksha Bandhan! Are you aware of what that entails? It means that Raksha Bandhan is fast approaching, leaving us with limited